The Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) has released the 12th edition of Standards for Steam Surface Condensers. The latest edition represents. Ecolaire® Brand Steam Surface Condensers by SPX Heat Transfer are currently in operation with surfaces up to million sq. ft. and serve plants up to A comparison between a computer model of a steam surface condenser and data from a machinery test of a DDG class engineering plant is provided.
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Steam Surface Condenser
The steam and condensate properties are built in. A complete range of tube properties is also built in.
The cleanliness of a given condenser can be determined quickly using a trial and error method. To take care of length wise expansion of tubes some designs have expansion steam surface condenser between the shell and the tube sheet allowing the latter to move longitudinally.
Steam Surface Condenser
steam surface condenser In smaller units some sag is given to the tubes to take care of tube expansion with both end water boxes fixed rigidly to the shell. Tubes[ edit ] Generally the tubes are made of stainless steelcopper alloys such as brass or bronze, cupro nickelor titanium depending on several selection criteria.
The use of copper bearing alloys such as brass or cupro nickel is rare in new plants, due to environmental concerns steam surface condenser toxic copper alloys.
Also depending on the steam cycle water treatment for the boiler, it may be desirable to avoid tube materials containing copper. Titanium condenser tubes are usually the best technical choice, however the use of titanium condenser tubes has been virtually eliminated by the sharp increases in the costs for this material.
Waterboxes[ edit ] The tube sheet at each end with tube ends rolled, for each end of the condenser is closed by a fabricated box cover known as a waterbox, with flanged connection to the tube sheet or condenser shell. The waterbox is usually provided with man holes on hinged covers to allow inspection and cleaning.
These waterboxes on inlet side will also have flanged connections for cooling water inlet butterfly valvessmall vent pipe with hand valve for air venting at higher level, steam surface condenser hand operated drain valve at bottom to drain the waterbox for maintenance.
Similarly on the outlet waterbox the cooling steam surface condenser connection will have large flanges, butterfly valvesvent connection also at higher level and drain connections at lower level.
Surface condenser - Wikipedia
Similarly thermometer pockets are located at inlet and outlet pipes for local measurements of cooling water temperature. In smaller units, some steam surface condenser make the condenser shell as well as waterboxes of cast iron.
Corrosion[ edit ] On the cooling water side of the condenser: The tubes, the tube sheets and the water boxes may be made up of materials having different compositions and are always in contact with circulating water. This water, depending on its chemical composition, will act as an electrolyte between the metallic composition of tubes and water boxes.
This will give rise to electrolytic corrosion which steam surface condenser start from more anodic materials first. Sea water based condensers, in particular when sea water has added chemical pollutantshave the worst corrosion characteristics.
River water with pollutants are also undesirable for condenser cooling water. The corrosive effect of sea or river water has to be tolerated and remedial methods have to be adopted.
One method is the use of sodium hypochloriteor chlorineto ensure there is no marine growth on the pipes or the tubes. This practice must be strictly regulated to make sure the circulating water returning to the sea or river source is not affected. On the steam shell side of the steam surface condenser The concentration of undissolved gases is high over air zone tubes.
Therefore these tubes are exposed to higher corrosion rates. Some times these tubes are affected by stress corrosion cracking, if original stress is not fully relieved during manufacture. steam surface condenser
To overcome these effects of corrosion some manufacturers provide higher corrosive resistant tubes in steam surface condenser area. Effects of corrosion[ edit ] As the tube ends get corroded there is steam surface condenser possibility of cooling water leakage to the steam side contaminating the condensed steam or condensate, which is harmful to steam generators.
The other parts of water boxes may also get affected in the long run requiring repairs or replacements involving long duration shut-downs.