Beginning date: ; Title Variation: Journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability: Ecology & society; Frequency: Semiannual; Vol/date range. The ecology and society network. Author(s): Gunderson, L., and C. Folke. In: Ecology and Society 14(2): Year: Type: Journal / article. Theme affiliation. Information about the open-access journal Ecology and Society in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to.


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Society and Ecology

In this paper we argue that durable models of environmental relationships already exist in approaches of place-based peoples, whose values connect people to their environments, provide guidance on appropriate behaviors, and structure sustained people-place relationships.

To illustrate, we identify and discuss concordant values of indigenous peoples at opposite ends of the Pacific Ecology and society The Ecology and Society network.

Students also have the opportunity to polish their mastery of foundational material, and gain skills as educators, by working ecology and society with faculty as Teaching Assistants in undergraduate courses in their subject area.

Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. We shall see that in time the structures or institutions that mark the ecology and society of humanity from a mere animal community into an authentic society began to undergo far-reaching changes and these changes become issues of paramount importance in social ecology.

For better or worse, societies develop around status groups, hierarchies, classes, and state formations.

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But reproduction and family care remain the abiding biological bases for every form ecology and society social life as well as the originating factor in the socialization of the young and the formation of a society. The biological ecology and society that Briffault adds to what we call society and socialization cannot be stressed too strongly.

It is a decisive presence, not only in the origins of society over ages of animal evolution, but in the daily recreation of society in our everyday lives.


The appearance of a newly born infant and the highly extended care it receives for many years reminds us that it is not only a human being that is being reproduced, but society itself. By comparison with ecology and society young of other species, children develop slowly and over a long period of time.

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Living in close association with parents, siblings, kin groups, and an ecology and society community of people, they retain a plasticity of mind that makes for creative individuals and ever-formative social groups.

A chimpanzee, for example, remains an infant for only three years and a juvenile for seven.

By the age of ten, it is a full-grown adult. Children, by contrast, are regarded as infants for approximately six years and juveniles for fourteen. A chimpanzee, in short, grows mentally and physically in about half the time required by a human being, and its capacity to learn or, at least to ecology and society, is already fixed by comparison with a human being, whose mental abilities may expand for decades.

By the same ecology and society, chimpanzee associations are often idiosyncratic and fairly limited.

Ecology and society | Resilience Science

Human associations, on the other hand, are basically stable, highly institutionalized, and they are marked by a degree of solidarity, indeed, by a degree of creativity, that has no equal in nonhuman species as far as we know.

This prolonged degree of human mental plasticity, dependency, and social ecology and society yields two results that are of decisive importance. The overwhelming mass of anthropological evidence suggests that participation, mutual aid, solidarity, and empathy were the social virtues early human groups emphasized within their communities.

The idea that people are dependent upon each other for the good life, indeed, ecology and society survival, followed from the prolonged dependence of the young upon adults.

Ecology, Evolution, Ecosystems, and Society – Graduate Program at Dartmouth

Independence, not to mention competition, would have seemed utterly alien, if not bizarre, to a creature reared over many years in a largely dependent condition. Care for others would have been seen as the perfectly natural outcome of a highly acculturated being that was, in turn, clearly in need of extended care.

Our modern version of individualism, more precisely, of egotism, would have cut across the grain of early solidarity and mutual aid — ecology and society, I may add ecology and society which such a physically fragile animal like a human being could hardly have survived as an adult, much less as a child.

Second, human interdependence must have assumed a highly structured form. There is no evidence that human beings normally relate to each other through the fairly loose systems of bonding we find among our closest primate cousins. That human social bonds can be dissolved or de-institutionalized in periods of radical change or cultural breakdown is too obvious to ecology and society here.

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On the contrary, the evidence we have at hand points to the fact that all humans, perhaps even our distant hominid ancestors, lived in some kind of structured family groups, and, later, in bands, tribes, villages, and other forms. In short, they bonded together as they still donot only emotionally and morally, but also structurally in contrived, clearly definable, and fairly permanent institutions.

Nonhuman animals may form loose communities and even take collective protective postures to defend their young from predators. But such communities can hardly be called structured, except in a broad, ecology and society ephemeral, sense.

Humans, by contrast, create highly formal communities that tend to become increasingly structured over the course of time.

This response attempts to provide greater clarity on the conceptual ecology and society for social learning.